Saturday, 18 July 2015

Frederick, Prince of Wales and the busts of the "Patriot Circle" by Scheemakers, Rysbrack and Ady in the Temple of Friendship at Stowe. A bust of Paul Joddrell by Thomas Ady


Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales (1707 - 51).
Son of George II,
by Peter Scheemakers (1691 - 1781).
 
In the Royal Collection. St George's Hall, Windsor Castle.
 
 
81.0 x 51.0 x 25.0 cm
 
Commissioned by Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham for the Temple of Friendship in the garden at Stowe, Buckinghamshire; by descent to 2nd Duke of Buckinghamshire; sold Christie's, 15 August 1848; bought Rainey; fifth Earl Temple; by whom sold Sotheby's, London, 9 May 1941; bought by HM Queen Elizabeth.
 
Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II, 2015.
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The Temple of Friendship at Stowe.
 
 
 
 
Engraving from Benton Seeley's A Description of the Gardens of Lord Viscount Cobham at Stow in Buckinghamshire, 1744.
 
 
 
Another engraving by our old friend George Bickham the Younger, of the Temple of Friendship from The Beauties of Stow, or a description of the most Noble House, Gardens and Magnificent Buildings therein of the Right Honourable Earl Temple, Viscount and Baron Cobham.... with engravings by Geo. Bickham. 1756.
 
 
 
 
This engraving from a new edition of Benton Seeley. A description of the Gardens.... - 1780.
 
Showing the parapet raised in about 1760 to match the Queens Temple.
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Designed by James Gibbs and begun in 1737 - Inscribed on the exterior of the building is AMICITIAE S (sacred to friendship),  inside were placed 10 busts in white marble on black marble columns of Lord Cobham and nine of his friends who were syled The Patriot Circle:
 
Richard Temple, Lord Cobham, bust by Scheemakers in V and A
 
Earl Bathurst, (a bust on the monument in Cirencester Abbey possibly a version, )
 
William Pitt the Elder, the Earl of Chatham.
 
Philip Dormer Stanhope, the Earl of Chesterfield, bust by Scheemakers. (possibly the Huntington Library version).
 
John Leveson - Gower, Earl Gower, (Ady(e) poss. see below), whereabouts unknown.
 
Hugh Hume - The Earl of Marchmont, current whereabouts unknown. A plaster bust at Mellerstain is probably a version.
 
Richard Grenville, Earl Temple,
 
John Fane, the Earl of Westmoreland, Bust by Ady (V and A).
 
Sir George Lyttleton, Lord Lyttleton,  whereabouts unknown.
 
Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales. bust by Scheemakers (Royal Collection).
 
Some are believed to be by Ady - this needs confirming. Bickham (1756) says "some of them fine, by Rysbrack"
 
 
 (Three of these men were Cobham's nephews: his heir Richard Grenville, later Earl Temple; William Pitt, later Earl of Chatham; and Sir George Lyttelton.)
 
 
The temple was badly damaged by fire in 1840 and is now a romantic ruin.   The busts were moved to the Grenville Vestibule. All ten were sold in the Stowe Sale of 1848.
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Stowe Sale Catalogue 1848.
 
 
 
 
Excerpts above from The Stowe Sale Catalogue of 1848 - giving some details of the bust their purchasers and price.
 
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 Extract above from Nollekens and his Times by John Thomas Smith, pub. 1828.
I will be publishing on the 3 dimensional images of Shakespeare in due course.
 
 
 
Bickham, Temple of Venus at Stowe. 
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Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham.(1675 - 1749). 
By Peter Scheemakers.
 
One of a series of ten busts executed for Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham for the Temple of Friendship at Stowe, Buckinghamshire, later moved to the Grenville Vestibule there. Sold on the sixth day of the Stowe sale, 21 August 1848, lot 770, for £18 18s to Mr Rainey, who may have acted as agent for the Temple family. Included in the sale of the Executers of the Rt Hon. Algernon William Stephen, 5th Earl Temple, removed from Newton Park, Bristol, held at Sotheby's, London, 9 May 1941, lot no. 65. Purchased by Dawson for £44. Acquired, probably through Dawson, by Dr W.L. Hildburgh F.S.A.; on loan from Hildburgh from June 1941. Given by him to the Museum as a New Year gift in 1942.
 
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Terracotta bust of Viscount Cobham by Peter Scheemakers at West Wycombe Park, Bucks.
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Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield by Peter Scheemakers.
Height 25".
 
The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens
 
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Bust of John Leveson - Gower 1st Earl Gower- current location unknown.
In Peter Scheemakers by Ingrid Roscoe in Walpole Society Journal 1999, she suggests that this bust is by Scheemakers. The style and carving of the socle leads me to believe that it is by Ady(e)
 
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 An anonymous plaster bust perhaps of Alexander Hume Campbell, 2nd Earl of Marchmont.
 
At Mellerstain House,
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John Fane, 7th Earl of Westmoreland (1682 - 1762) attributed to Thomas Ady (active 1730 - 53).
Soldier and Politician.
 
Carved for Lord Cobham for the Temple of Friendship at Stowe.
 
 John Fane, 7th Earl of Westmoreland, built Mereworth Castle in Kent (designed by Colen Cambell in 1723, but based on Palladio's Villa Rotunda, Vicenza of 1565).
 
Ady(e) was sculptor to the Society of Dilettanti from 1737 - 44.
 
Photograph from the V and A Museum.
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 The Terracotta bust of John Fane 7th Earl of Westmorland at West Wycombe Park, Bucks.
by Thomas Ady(e).
 
Photographed without a flash in very poor light.
 
I am very grateful to Sir Edward Dashwood of West Wycombe for allowing me the opportunity to visit West Wycombe and to photograph the sculpture.
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Marble bust of Paul Jodderell by Thomas Ady(e) c.1740.
 
Victoria and Albert Museum.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A marble bust believed to be by Ady(e) of Paul Joddrell of c.1740  is in V and A.
Joddrell was Solicitor General to Frederick, Prince of Wales.
The Style of the socle is peculiar to Ady(e).
Another bust that appears to have suffered from overzealous restoration and repolishing.
 
Note : V and A say - Acquired by Gerald Kerin, London, a dealer, from Commander Roger Coke, Norfolk. Bayfield Hall is recorded as the home of Henry Joddrell, the sitter's third son, and it is presumed the bust remained at Bayfield Hall until its sale to Kerin. Purchased by the Museum from Kerin in 1956 for £300, using funds from the bequest of Francis Reubell Bryan.
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Not much has been written about Thomas Ady(e). This seems like a good place to add what I know
 
Monuments -
 
c.1712 - (?) Sir John Cotton  Landwade, Cambs.
c.1734 - Charles Sergison Cuckfield, Sussex, (below).
c.1737 - Hugo Raymond - Beckenham.
c.1740 - Lane Harrison - St Marys, Perivale.
c.1742 - Bishop Weston and his wife and daughter - Exeter Cathedral.
c.1742 - Humphrey hall - Bengeo. Herts
c.1745 - William Mitchell and his wife Elizabeth d. 1748 - Fowlmere, Cambs.
c. 1753. Sir James Hallett - Little Dunmow, Essex.
 
 1748 - Carving on the Alter and other works at St John, Church Row, Hampstead London (the vase upon ye type of ye pulpit payment £29; £1 11s 6d Church minutes.
1753 carving  for Augusta, Princess of Wales (perhaps for Leicester House). untraced.
 
1737 - Ballot box designed by Knapton for the Soc. of Dilettante
1753 - Carved work at Carlton House
 
Info Biog. Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain Yale.
 
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Monument to Charles Sergison, 1734 by Thomas Ady(e).
 
Parish Church of Holy Trinity. Cuckfield, Sussex.
signed - Tho. ADEY. SCVLPT. IT
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Left hand side of panel on base, inscribed letters:

Near this Place lyeth Interred ye Body of
CHARLES SERGISON Efqr. Of Cuckfield Place,
who departed this life Novr.ye 26th. 1732 Aged 78.
He was initiated into ye Civil Government
of the Royal Navy in the Year 1671,
as a Clerk in one of His Majesty's Yards,
& laudably Served through Several Offices
till the Year 1719 (namely 48 Years)
35 of which as a Principal Officer and
Commifsioner to the Satisfaction of
the Several Kings and Queens, and their
greatest Ministers, and all his Superiors,
about which time the Civil Government
of the Navy being put into Military hands,
he was esteem'd, by them, not a fit person
to serve any longer.
 
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Right hand side of panel on base, inscribed letters:

He was a Gentleman of great Capacity & Penetration
exact Judgment,
close Application to Businefs
Strict Integrity:
These Virtues compleatly qualify'd him for t/y [that] Post
which he so well fill'd, so long enjoy'd
In those who serv'd under him. Merit alone recommended
Fidelity and Diligence were rewarded,
which gain'd him Respect, Esteem and Honour.
He serv'd his Country in several Parliaments,
where like a true Patriot,
he consulted only ye real Interest of ye Nation,
without any particular views of his own.
In private Life He observ'd Justice & Probity
was Affectionate to his Relations
Peaceable to his Neighbours
Kind and Beneficent to his Servants
And in every Station an Honest Man
 
 
Charles Sergison purchased Cuckfield Park in 1691 from Mary Clark, the last of the Bowyer family who had built the house 100 years before and it remained in the family until 1968. By 1800, the Sergison Family owned forty one properties in Cuckfield. 'Adey' is spelled 'ADYE' on most sources. Sergison had been granted the coat of arms with a dolphin crest also in 1691. Sergison was, at age 17, a junior in one of the naval dockyards and became Chief Clerk to John Pepys, the brother of the diarist. He rose to become one of the four Principals in control of the navy and he served for 48 years under William III, Queen Anne and George I. He was aggrieved by being forced to retire at 65 years old. During his retirement he collected sixty five folios of Minutes of the Navy Board, now known as The Sergison Papers and published by the Naval Records Society. He also assembled a library of books for which he had three bookcases made by the joiner who had worked for Samuel Pepys, later known as The Pepys Bookcases. His papers are now in the Royal Maritime Museum in Greenwich. He died at Cuckfield Place at 78 years in November 1732. They had no children and his estate was left to Thomas Warden II and to his late wife's sisters and nieces. A condition of the will was that Thomas Warden take the name of Sergison. His will directed that ''my body be decently interred in my burying place in the chancel of the parish church'' and ''a monument be set up on the north side of the chancel''. The Rev Daniel Walter who dominated Cuckfield for nearly half a century (1713-1761), refused permission for the erection of the monument overshadowing the altar but Thomas Warden II called a vestry meeting and enlisted the support of several inhabitants.
('A Chronicle of Cuckfield')
 
 

Jonathan Tyers and his bust by Roubiliac

The Busts of Jonathan Tyers (1702 - 1767)
by Louis Francois Roubiliac.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Victora and Albert Museum
They suggest a date of 1738.

This terracotta and the marble version in the Birmingham Museum were almost certainly commissioned by Tyers himself.  The two busts were recorded in the possession of the Tyers's grandson, and then passed by descent to the Reverend Jonathan Tyers Barrett of Brandon House, Suffolk.
The busts were sold at the Brandon House sale in September 1919.
The purchaser at this sale was Mr R. Levine of Norwich, whose son, Mr G. J. Levine, sold the terracotta to the V&A in 1927 for £50. The marble bust was sold at Sotheby's on 24 June 1927 (lot 77), but in 1956 it was acquired by the Birmingham City Museum and Art Gallery from Sabin, a London dealer.
 
 
 
 
 
From a cursory inspection of these photographs (I have yet to examine the original) it is my guess that this marble bust might have been outside and exposed to the weather for a prolonged period. It has then been repolished. This would explain the somewhat generalised features and the high gloss appearance - the unfortunate result of overzealous "restoration".  
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There is an intriguing terracotta bust of Henry Streatfield (1679 -1747) in the Streatfield Mausoleum in St Marys Church, Chiddingstone Kent first pointed out to me by Matthew Craske in 2000.
It is inscribed on the socle H.S. Aet .60. 1739. The modelling of the clothing is extremely close to that on the bust of Jonathan Tyers. It has buttons on the waistcoat which are missing on the Tyers terracotta but can be clearly seen on the marble, indicating that there should be no doubt that the marble bust of Tyers is by Roubiliac.
 
 
Bust of John Ray in the British Museum.
 
Once again Roubiliac uses the same basic form for clothing on this bust of John Ray as on the bust at the Tyers and Streatfield busts. There is yet another variation of this clothing on a terracotta bust by Roubiliac of Alexander Small (d.1752) on a monument to James Andrews at St Marys Church, Clifton Reynes in Buckinghamshire. The monument is attributed to Scheemakers by Malcolm Baker (see below) I have not inspected this monument or seen photographs and this information needs to be confirmed. There is no mention of it in Roubiliac and the 18th Century Monument by Baker and Bindman Yale, 1995 or in Peter Scheemakers by Ingrid Roscoe Walpole Soc. Journal 1999.
 
Note: - this info from The Making of Portrait Busts in the Mid 18th Century: Roubiliac Scheemakers and Trinity College Dublin. Malcolm Baker.
 
There are several other examples of the duplication of the clothing on Roubiliac busts, such as the bust of Plato at Trinity College Dublin and various busts of Alexander Pope, the bronzed plaster bust of Nicholas Hawksmoor c. 1735/6 in the Buttery at All Souls College, Oxford (a plaster bust at Christchurch Spitalfields) and the marble bust of William Wither d. 1733 at Wooten St Lawrence, Hampshire - these last two traditionally attributed to Scheemakers but perhaps by Roubiliac working under  Scheemakers. The Clifton Reynes and Wootton St Lawrence monuments along with the busts at Trinity College Library would suggest a close working relationship between Roubiliac and Scheemakers in the mid 1730's - I will return to the subject in due course.
It has been suggested that this is because Roubiliac used the same basic moulds for the bodies and draperies of these busts where the clay is pressed into the mould taken from a prototype clay model, and the head modelled and applied separately, equally possible is that he used some sort of pointing machine. 
 
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Jonathan Tyers and Family by Francis Hayman 1740.
National Portrait Gallery.
77.8 x 106.2 cms - purchased 1983.
Jonathan Tyers with his wife Elizabeth, his sons Jonathan and Thomas, and his daughters Margaret and Elizabeth.
 
 
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Portrait believed to be Jonathan Tyers with his daughter Elizabeth and her husband John Wood
Francis Hayman. c1750 - 52.
With Frame 118.1 x 104.1 cms.
 
 
 
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Margaret Tyers daughter of Jonathan Tyers senior with her husband the Welsh amateur painter George Rogers and his sister Margaret who was to become Mrs Jonathan Tyers junior.
 
By Francis Hayman. c. 1748 - 50.
Size 104.1 x 99.1 cms.
 
 
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Margaret Tyers and her husband George Rogers.
 
Painted by Francis Hayman c.1748 - 50.
Size 90.2 x 69.9cms.
 
 
 
Jonathan Tyers shown second on the right.
Engraving by George Bickham the Younger, 1741.
19.7 x 32.5 cms.

The central group is taken from the Adieu to Spring Gardens from Bickham's Musical entertainer.

Satire? on Vauxhall Gardens and its habitu├ęs, the central group copied from sheet 49 of the Musical Entertainer (see 1880,1113.5469). On the left, the book-keeper (perhaps named Block) points to his account sheet saying to the proprietor, Jonathan Tyers, "Your tickets, Sir, are all brought in/By Bunters full of filthy Gin" to which Tyers, leaning backwards, responds "Z-ds! Tis a damnable Disgrace/T'admit such in this noble Place" while holding out his left hand to deter John Lockman, a hack writer, from dipping into his pocket; Lockman holds a scroll and pen and says, "...and then/I'll puff and write, and puff again". Behind Lockman stands Edward Dawson, proprietor of the Vauxhall Glass Works, holding a drinking glass in one hand and his hat in the other, saying, "And to illuminate each Tree,/More Lusters you may have of me."; an elderly chaplain holds out his knife and fork; Robert Walpole turns towards the viewer, pointing to a gentleman on the right, says, "My Lord Bal[timo]re's very fond/But I think he'd better Abscond". In the centre, Frederick, Prince of Wales, sits at a table labelled "33" with another man and two women; he gazes at one of the women while she turns towards one of two gentlemen approaching from the right (evidently Lord Baltimore) and says, "My Lord I'll do't"; a waiter with a badge lettered "33" leans towards the other woman. In the right hand foreground, the master of ceremonies looks out at the viewer, saying, "Such Company". Groups of well-dressed men and women stroll in the background; many lamps illuminate the walks and the orchestra stand. lettering on the trees advertises beef, ham, horseradish and oil at high prices. On either side figures of horn-playing women emerge from the rococo frame. May 1741
Etching with stipple

Engraving and description from British Museum Website.


Bickham Musical Entertainer.

 
The same group appear again in this engraving by George Bickham.


 
Bickham repeating the pose of Tyers in The Musical Entertainer, 1736 - 40.
 
A fine quality reproduction of this engraving can be purchased -
 
 


 
 
Engraving by George Bickham the Younger believed to show Jonathan Tyers. 
British Museum
 
 
 


For more of Bickham's engravings from Bickhams Musical Entertainer see - http://www.panteek.com/index.htm

For Prince Frederick and Vauxhall Gardens and its political meanings see -
http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaks-online-publications/bourgeois/bourgch4.pdf